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Types of Business Enterprise
There are several types of business enterprises an investor can choose from in establishing operations in the Philippines.

Organized under Philippine Laws
  1. Sole Proprietorship - is a business structure owned by an individual who has full control/authority of its own and owns all the assets, personally owes answers all liabilities or suffers all losses but enjoys all the profits to the exclusion of others. A sole proprietorship must apply for a business name and be registered with the DTI-National Capital Region (NCR). In the provinces, application may be filed with the DTI regional/provincial offices.

  2. Partnership - Under the Civil Code of the Philippines, a partnership is treated as juridical person, having a separate legal personality from that of its members. Partnerships may either be general partnerships, where the partners have unlimited liability for the debts and obligation of the partnership, or limited partnerships, where one or more general partners have unlimited liability and the limited partners have liability only up to the amount of their capital contributions. It consists of two or more partners. A partnership with more than P3,000 capital must register with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

  3. Corporation - is composed of juridical persons established under the Corporation Code and regulated by the SEC with a personality separate and distinct from that of its stockholders. The liability of the shareholders of a corporation is limited to the amount of their share capital. It consists of at least five to 15 incorporators, each of whom must hold at least one share and must be registered with the SEC. Minimum paid up capital is P5,000. A corporation can either be stock or non-stock company regardless of nationality. Such company, if 60% Filipino-40% foreign-owned, is considered a Filipino corporation; If more than 40% foreign-owned, it is considered a domestic foreign-owned corporation.
Stock Corporation
This is a corporation with capital stock divided into shares and authorized to distribute to the holders of such shares dividends or allotments of the surplus profits on the basis of the shares held.
Non-stock Corporation
This is a corporation organized principally for public purposes such as charitable, educational, cultural, or similar purposes and does not issue shares of stock to its members.

Organized under Foreign Laws
  1. Branch Office - is a foreign corporation organized and existing under foreign laws that carries out business activities of the head office and derives income from the host country. It is required to put up a minimum paid up capital of US$200,000, which can be reduced to US$100,000 if activity involves advanced technology, or company employs at least 50 direct employees. Registration with the SEC is mandatory.

  2. Representative Office - is a foreign corporation organized and existing under foreign laws. It does not derive income from the host country and is fully subsidized by its head office. It deals directly with clients of the parent company as it undertakes such activities as information dissemination, acts as a communication center, and promotes company products, as well as quality control of products for export. It is required to have an initial minimum inward remittance in the amount of US$30,000 to cover its operating expenses and must be registered with the SEC. Under Republic Act (RA) 8756, any multinational company may establish a Regional Headquarter (RHQ) or Regional Operating Head Quarter (ROHQ) as long as they are existing under laws other than the Philippines, with branches, affiliates, and subsidiaries in the Asia Pacific Region and other foreign markets.

  3. Regional Headquarters (RHQs) - An RHQ undertakes activities that shall be limited to acting as supervisory, communication, and coordinating center for its subsidiaries, affiliates, and branches in the Asia-Pacific region. It acts as an administrative branch of a multinational company engaged in international trade.  It does not derive income from sources within the Philippines and does not participate in any manner in the management of any subsidiary or branch office it might have in the Philippines. Required capital is US$50,000 annually to cover operating expenses.

  4. Regional Operating Headquarters (ROHQs) - An ROHQ performs the following qualifying services to its affiliates, subsidiaries, and branches in the Philippines.
- General administration and planning
- Business planning and coordination
- Sourcing/procurement of raw materials components Corporate finance advisory services
- Marketing control and sales promotion
- Training and personnel management
- Logistic services
- Research and development (R&D) services and product development
- Technical support and communications
- Business development
- Derives income in the Philippines
- Required capital: US$200,000 - one time remittance
Friday, April 25, 2014 1:06PM GMT+8

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